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From that moment on, I began working continuously with Kreutzwald’s epic, eventually re-reading it, giving lectures and publishing articles about it. (See Raun 2001 for an excellent English overview of Estonian history.) The area we call Estonia today was conquered by Danes and Germans in the thirteenth century and from this time on was dominated by a linguistically different upper class.

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The German Reception of the Kalevipoeg 74 First reviews 74 Wilhelm Schott’s treatise 78 Other reviews, minor studies and marginal notes 82 A new German translation 87 The twentieth century and the beginning of the twenty-first century 92 A new German edition 95 6. The answer is that precisely owing to the enormous significance of the text within Estonian culture, the Kalevipoeg is constantly being reread, reshaped and reinterpreted by every new generation of Estonian readers, but also by every new generation of Estonian and international scholars.

German Rewritings of the Kalevipoeg 98 The advantage of the disadvantage 98 Israël’s book from 1873 99 Grosse’s book from 1875 102 A shortened prose version for children, 1894 104 Another anthroposophical voice 105 7. Folkloristic Metamorphosis in the Foreign Reception of the Kalevipoeg 107 Translations into other languages 107 The principle of self-correction 108 The transfer to literary reception 110 The case of Lou Goble 112 The case of Lou Goble, once more 116 8. Folkloristische Metamorphose bei der ausländischen Kalevipoeg-Rezeption. In Finno-Ugric Folklore, Myth and Cultural Identity. Therefore new treatments and reassessments are still to come.

All this created a specific situation in the third quarter of the nineteenth century, which was crucial for the national emancipation movement.

Although a vast majority of the population had reading skills, no literary infrastructure let alone an Estonian field of literature existed.

Two additional subseries were formed in 2002, Historica and Litteraria. In addition to its publishing activities, the Finnish Literature Society maintains research activities and infrastructures, an archive containing folklore and literary collections, a research library and promotes Finnish literature abroad. Phil., Finnish Literature Society, Finland Tero Norkola, Publishing Director, Finnish Literature Society, Finland Kati Romppanen, Secretary of the Board, Finnish Literature Society, Finland Editorial Office SKS P. Box 259 FI-00171 Helsinki Hasselblatt Kalevipoeg Studies The Creation and Reception of an Epic Finnish Literature Society • SKS • Helsinki Studia Fennica Folkloristica 21 The publication has undergone a peer review. Kreutzwald’s ample correspondence was published in six volumes between 19 (see KKV in the bibliography) and provides an extremely valuable source for Estonian cultural development in the nineteenth century.

STUDIA FENNICA EDITORIAL BOARD Pasi Ihalainen, Professor, University of Jyväskylä, Finland Timo Kaartinen, Title of Docent, Lecturer, University of Helsinki, Finland Taru Nordlund, Title of Docent, Lecturer, University of Helsinki, Finland Riikka Rossi, Title of Docent, Researcher, University of Helsinki, Finland Katriina Siivonen, University Teacher, University of Helsinki, Finland Lotte Tarkka, Professor, University of Helsinki, Finland Tuomas M. The open access publication of this volume has received part funding via a Jane and Aatos Erkko Foundation grant. Most of the texts in this Estonian edition, however, are translations from German.

I am also grateful to two anonymous referees whose constructive criticism was very much appreciated. But the situation in Finland differed in two crucial points from that in Estonia.

In addition, I would like to thank the Finnish Literature Society for accepting this book into its prestigious series, and, finally, I am extremely grateful to Frog and Clive Tolley for polishing the English of this text. First, the Swedish settlement was limited to the coastal areas and hardly reached the hinterland.

Reading was mostly restricted to religious literature, calendars and the emerging press, which made its debut with the successful foundation of the Perno Postimees (“The Pärnu Postilion”) in 1857.

Ten years later, in 1867, the first bookshop for Estonian books was opened in Tartu.

The only difference from their fellow Russian peasants in the tsarist empire was that a high percentage of Estonians was able to read.

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